Budgerigar Mutations & Breeding
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There are presently at least 32 primary mutations in the Budgerigar Parakeet enabling hundreds of possible secondary mutations (stable combined primary mutations) & color varieties (unstable combined mutations) .
Mutations can occur in the ...
- color of the plumage and pattern: albino, blue, cinnamon-ino (lacewinged), clearwinged, dark, greywinged, opaline, pieds, spangled, dilute (suffused), and violet; and
- feathers: crested
They are divided into two basic series of colors:
- white-based (blue, grey and white) andyellow-based (green, grey-green and yellow).
Each of those 32 primary mutations belonging to either one of the 4 basic groups of mutations classified in Parrot species genetics, namely:
- Albinism: where eumelanin is reduced in ALL body tissues & structures deviding into 2 sub-groups ; Complete-Albinism & Incomplete aka Partial Albinism,
- Dilutism:where eumelanin is always +/- incompletely (never completely) reduced virtually only in feathering,
- Leucism: where eumelanin is reduced virtually only in feathering and devides into 2 sub-groups ; Total-Leucism & Local-Leucism,
- Melanism: where eumelanin is +/- increased virtually only in feathering.
Each of those 32 primary mutations inherit either:
- autosomal-Co-Dominant (A-Co-D), autosomal-Complete-Dominant (A-C-D),autosomal-Incomplete-Dominant (A-I-D),autosomal-recessive (A-R),autosomal-Poly-Genic (A-P-G) Sex-Linked-recessive (S-L)
It must be noted that : the word autosomal is often replaced as a synonym by the NSL acronym standing for Non-Sex-Linked.
Here's a listing of the Budgerigar aka Budgie Parakeet's 32 primary mutations genetic identities, followed by their common names in parenthesis, followed by their according allele &/or Locus symbols & ending with their genetic inheritance ;
Blue Loci (plural of Locus):
- Dark-Factor: D-Locus : A-Co-D with regards to only other Blue Loci alleles &/or always otherwise A-I-D
- Blue: bl*bl : A-Co-D with regards to only other Blue Loci alleles &/or always otherwise A-R
- BlueII: blII-Locus : A-Co-D with regards to only other Blue Loci alleles &/or always otherwise A-R
- YellowFacedBlue: blII*yf : A-Co-D with regards to only other Blue Loci alleles &/or always otherwise A-R
- GoldenFacedBlue: blII*gf : A-Co-D with regards to only other Blue Loci alleles &/or always otherwise A-R
Structural mutations :
- Crest-Factor: Cr-Locus : A-P-GDark-Factor: D-Locus : A-I-DGrey-Factor (Dominant-Grey-Factor): G-Locus : A-C-D grey-factor (english-recessive-Grey-Factor): g-Locus : A-R grey-factor (australian-recessive-Grey-Factor) : ag-Locus : A-RViolet-Factor: V-Locus : A-I-D
Dilutistic mutations :
dil-Locus (Dilute Locus) multiple-allelic-series :
- Suffused (Dilute): dil*dil : A-Co-D with regards to only other dil-Locus alleles &/or always otherwise A-R
- ClearWings: dil*cw : A-Co-D with regards to only other dil-Locus alleles &/or always otherwise A-R
GreyWings: dil*gw : A-Co-D with regards to only other dil-Locus alleles &/or always otherwise A-R
Local-Leucistic (Pied) mutations :
- ADM (Anti-DiMorphic) Pied (danish-pied, recessive-pied, harlequin): s-Locus : A-R
- Piebald (Australian-Pied): Pb-Locus : A-C-D
- Pied (Continental_Dutch-Pied & Clear-Flighted_Dutch-Pied): Pi-Locus : A-C-D
Total-Leucistic (Clear) mutations :
- Spangle-Factor: Sp-Locus : I-D
- Dark-Eyed-Clear: dil*cw / dil*gw : is not a genuine primary mutation but a mutation variety produced by the visual combination of ADM-Pied & either Dutch-Pied varieties : A-Co-D
Albinistic mutations :
NSL-Albinism (recessive-albinism) : a-Locus : multiple-allelic-series :
- NSL-Ino (recessive-Ino): a*a : A-R
- Bronze_Fallow (german_Fallow): a*bz : A-Co-D with regards to only other a-Locus alleles &/or always otherwise A-R *This mutation more precisely belongs in the Incomplete-Albinistic mutations but it was necessary to display it's relationship with the a-Locus*
- Brown or BrownWings (sepia): b-Locus : presumed A-Co-D with regards to only other a-Locus alleles &/or always otherwise A-R *This mutation more precisely belongs in the Incomplete-Albinistic mutations but it was necessary to display it's relationship with the a-Locus*
Cinnamon (CinnamonWings): cin-Locus : S-L-R
- Dun_Fallow aka Grey-Brown_Fallow (english_Fallow) : df-Locus : A-R
- Faded : fd-Locus : A-R
- possible Beige_Fallow aka Pale-Brown_Fallow (australian_Fallow) : pf-Locus : A-R
- possible Plum-Eyed_Fallow (scotish_Fallow) : pl-Locus : A-R
SL-Albinism : ino-Locus : multiple-allelic-series :
- SL-Ino : ino-Locus : S-L-RSL-Clear Body : ino*cl : SL-Co-D with regards to only other ino-Locus alleles &/or always otherwise S-L-R
- BlackFace : bf-Locus : A-R
Other mutations :
- DarkWings : dw-Locus : A-I-DDominant-ClearBody : Cl-Locus : A-C-DOpaline : op-Locus : S-L-RSaddleBack : sb-Locus : A-RSlate : sl-Locus : S-L-R
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