The Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata) - also known as Musky Duck or Barbary Duck - is a large, hardy perching duck that has been attracting a lot of attention in recent years - particularly in North America, where it has been expanding its range in the last decade.
In their natural range of South America, they are often referred to as "Musco ducks" as they eat many mosquitos.
On the Avianweb, it generated many more inquiries and comments than any other duck or goose species - about at a ratio of 1 : 10. Most people are simply curious about them; some dislike them for their messiness, aggression and odd appearance, while others appreciate them for their intelligence, friendly and trusting personality and their distinctive appearance. For these reason alone, Muscovies are increasingly kept as backyard pets and even exhibition birds.
The origin of the Muscovy's name is unknown. It is not from Moscow; and even though it is commercially known as "Barbary Duck," it is also not native to Barbary.
Ducks or Geese?
- Muscovy ducks don't quack as is typical of other duck species and are generally quiet.
- Their eggs take longer to hatch than other duck eggs—35 days. Unlike all other breeds of ducks.
- All domesticated ducks originate from the Mallard, with the exception of the Muscovy which has distinct origins in South America.
Alternate (Global) Names
Spanish: Bragado, Pato criollo, Pato negro, Pato Real, Pato real o negro ... Portuguese: asa-branca, cairina, gamaleão, pato, pato-bravo, pato-bravo-verdadeiro, pato-crioulo, Pato-do-mato, pato-picaço, pato-selvagem ... Italian: Anatra muschiata, Anatra muta ... French: Canard de Barbarie, Canard musqué ... German: Moschusente ... Irish: Musclacha ... Bulgarian: Мускусна патица ... Catalan: Ànec mut .... Danish: Moskusand ... Estonian: muskuspart ... Finnish: Myskisorsa ... Icelandic: Moskusönd ... Japanese: nobariken ... Lithuanian: Muskusinė antis ... Dutch: Muskus eend, Muskuseend ... Norwegian: Knoppand, Knoppand (Domestisert: Moskusand) ... Swedish: Myskand ... Turkish: Amerikan Ördeği
- Muscovy Ducks usually live for 7-8 years; however they can live up to 20 years or more if they have access to good nutrition and don't fall victim to an accident or predation.
- The males can be very aggressive towards other birds. They are often observed in fights, using their claws, wings and beaks. They will chase away other males and pursue unwilling females in order to forcibly mate with them. The dominant male may even force himself on other males, particularly when the females are busy brooding eggs or raising their ducklings. This being said, they are generally quite friendly with people.
- Muscovies communicate with one another by wagging their tails and raising and lowering their heads at one another.
- Unlike other ducks, Muscovies don't swim much as their oil glands are quite under-developed compared to other duck species. However, they still fly (low flight mostly), swim and walk fairly well.
- Unlike most domestic waterfowl, Muscovies will often fly up into trees to roost.
- Muscovies graze like geese.
Distribution / Range
Muscovies are native to Mexico, Central and South America - but they originated in Brazil.
This non-migratory (resident) species normally inhabits forested swamps, lakes and streams. At night, they often roost in trees.
Some domesticated muscovies have escaped into the wild and now breed outside their native range, including in Western Europe and the United States.
In the United States, they are common in Florida and southern Texas (expanding northward). Individual birds or flocks (usually family groups) in San Francisco (Stow Lake inside of Golden Gate Park), Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia.
In Canada, several are found along the Thames River, London, Ontario and one immature brown-phase immature birds was spotted in Windsor, Ontario (2012).
UK & Japan: They have also been reported in United Kingdom and one report (with photo) of a male duck in Okinawa, Japan (obviously introduced).
Australia: One immature male was sighted in Loxton on the Murray River in Australia.
These ducks appear to be spreading fast - and most of them are probably either escapes or offspring of captive birds that were originally imported for the meat market or by breeders. Anyhow, this tropical breed has proven itself to be capable of adapting to varying climates. These robust and hardy ducks have adapted to extremely cold conditions quite easily.
The most distinctive feature of the muscovy ducks is the featherless, bright "lumpy" red mask around their eyes and above the beak, which is larger in the male.
Muscovies have a "crest" on the top of their heads that they can raise at will.
Males will raise this crest to fend off other males or he raises his crest to impress the females.
The male is easily identified by his face mask alone - but also by his generally larger size - in fact, the adult male is usually twice the size of the female. The female's appearance is generally more slender than that of the male.
The adult males can weigh up to 10-15 lbs (4.5 6.8 kg). The male measures, on average, 31 inches or 79 cm.
Most of the females are 5-7 pounds (2.3 - 3.1 kg) but can, in rare instances, reach up to 10 lbs (4.5 kg). The female measures about 23.6 inches or 60 cm
The original color of the Muscovy is glossy blackish/brown and white, and most of them still are that color - with varying degrees of white, black or brown ("pieds"). Some of them are very light colored (mostly white), while others are mostly black/brown. The black / dark brown patches have an attractive iridescence to them that can only be seen in the right light conditions.
Many other quite exotic colors have occurred - mostly in domesticated breeds, such as blue, blue and white, chocolate, chocolate and white, lavender and calico.
Dark colored muscovies have brown eyes. Whites, lilacs and blues usually have grey eyes.
Legs / Feet / Wings
They have webbed feet and strong sharp claws for grabbing tree branches and roosting.
Their tail is fairly short, flat and wide..
Juvenile muscovies are as cute as can be. Most of them are variably yellow and brown; a few are all yellow and others all brown. They lack the bumpy face masks of the adults and have a more slender appearance. They are very curious and friendly and will readily approach people looking for food (a somewhat trained response, as many people will gladly feed them to get a close-up look of them). They are mostly seen following their mother as she is foraging for food.
Calls / Vocalizations
Muscovies have very different vocalizations from other ducks.
Male Muscovies have a dry hissing call - often "wagging" their tail and fluffing up the feathers on their crown at the same time.
The female's make quiet trilling "pip" sounds. It is reminiscent to a flute quickly alternating between the notes F and G.
Pests or Beneficial?
Muscovies are considered pests by some because of their droppings or constant begging for food. Children or bird-loving adults delight in feeding the adorable muscovy ducklings. This has conditioned them to associate humans with food.
Not everybody appreciates being followed by these semi-tame ducks or having to clean up after them. For further information on problems with feral populations, please click here.
The major benefit associated with having these ducks in urban areas is that they help keep insect populations down, such as mosquitoes, roaches, flies, spiders (including poisonous ones) and even ants. They will basically eat any bug they can find. Muscovies also eat maggots and mosquito larva in the water, thus making a huge difference when it comes to insect control.
They catch bugs flying around and those they find on the ground or under rocks.
Muscovies are efficient weed eaters. But on the downside, they will also go for your vegetables and fruits -- so those need to be protected.
Muscovies eat all the excess food laying around that would otherwise attract mice and rats.
Breeding / Nesting
Both males and females reach reproductive maturity when they are about one year old; although at that young age, they have not yet necessarily attained their full body mass.
This species, like the Mallard, does not form stable pairs. Forced intercourse has been observed in feral populations. Popular males are often seen with up to four females - potentially the entire female population in the group; while the remaining males "hang out" in bachelor groups. However, the female may also mate with other males.
The hen lays a clutch of 8-10 white eggs and communal nests may contain up to 21 eggs. The nest is usually situated in a tree hole or hollow, which are incubated for 34 - 36 days, as opposed to 28 days in other duck breeds.
Muscovy hens can produce up to three clutches a year.
The mother duck will keep her brood of ducklings together to protect them from predators. The eggs and ducklings are preyed upon by raccoons, large turtles, birds of prey, large fish and snakes. Ducklings can fly within 5 - 8 weeks. Their feathers develop very fast.
Nesting is facilitated by the use of nest boxes. They will readily accept a wide range of nesting boxes, from large wood duck-like boxes with 6" to 8" diameter entrance holes to igloo-shaped half barrels, to l' by 2' ground nest boxes with either side or end-entry holes, to naturally occuring hollow trees and stumps.
Hybrids: If Muscovies are mated to other domestic breeds, they produce young that are commonly known as Mulard Ducks ("mule ducks") - in reference to their sterility. Male hybrids produce abnormal sperm and are, therefore, mostly sterile; however, about one out of every thirty male is able to produce young. The females are always sterile.
The Muscovy Duck had probably been domesticated for centuries by South American Indigenous cultures at the time of its introduction to European colonialists.
The Domestic Muscovy duck is descended from the wild Muscovy Duck. While the majority of its ancestors were also wild Muscovy Ducks, the males of two other wild species also contributed their genepool.
The South American Comb Duck drake was crossed with the first semi-domestic founders.
Muscovy Ducks as pets are very popular because raising them is inexpensive and less time consuming.
Muscovy ducks don't generally like to be over handled by humans (unless they were raised by them); however, they can grow very confiding.
Muscovies are less prone to illnesses as compared to other ducks.
As Muscovy Ducks lay large clutches and can be encouraged to produce up to three clutches of offspring a year, the selective breeding regimes of the South American Indian cultures were successful in producing dramatically larger domestic muscovy with unusual coloration making individuals recognizable. This is critical in the development of domestic breeds.
Once the domestic Muscovy Duck reached the Philippines and Indonesia it readily became the most important poultry for many European settlements for the qualities of the meat and tolerance of heat and wet.
At some point, Europeans and/or their Asian neighbors either inadvertently or purposely hybridized the now critically endangered White Winged Wood Duck to their domestic Muscovy Ducks. The White Winged Wood Duck is much closer related to the Muscovy Duck than the Comb Duck. Fertile male offspring were bred back into the domestic Muscovy Duck gene pool in high enough numbers to introduce a number of new traits into the populations of founders that reached African and European Shores.
Some feral populations, such as those in Florida are said to present problems. Muscovy ducks can breed near urban and suburban lakes and on farms, nesting in tree cavities or on the ground, under shrubs in yards, on condominium balconies or under roof overhangs. Problems arise from aggressive begging for food and mess created by droppings. It is said that each adult duck produces about 150 g (1/3-pound) of droppings per day, and they defecate in swimming pools and on patios and docks. This presents a possible health hazard.
Legal methods to restrict breeding include not feeding these ducks, deterring them with noise or by chasing, and finding nests and vigorously shaking the eggs to render them nonviable. Leaving the eggs to the nest will prevent re-laying as the mother duck would if the clutch were removed.
Humane feral duck population management
Feral populations can be humanely managed to reduce the number of offspring produced by resident feral ducks, by interfering with a duck's natural nesting instinct. Simply destroying all nests or eggs will only result in the duck renesting in different locations until she has a successful hatch. This is the key consideration when managing active nests. The duck must be allowed to incubate and hatch at least 2 ducklings, otherwise she will abandon the nest and immediately start a new nest elsewhere. Allowing her 2 viable eggs will ensure that this duck will spend 3 weeks incubating and up to 12 weeks caring for her 2 ducklings.
The goal is normally to alter all but two of the eggs in a nest so that they are unable to hatch. This can only be accomplished during the laying period (before incubation).
If there is any doubt regarding the development of the eggs, a sampling should be taken to a local wildlife rehabilitator for candling. During the laying period (before incubation has started - the eggs should still be cool, not warm), the eggs are still dormant and should be vigorously shaken to cause the internal structure to change (comparable to scrambling the egg inside the shell). Each shaken egg should be dated with a crayon the day it is shaken and returned to the nest. Removing the altered eggs could result in the duck abandoning the nest and starting a new one elsewhere if she feels a predator has discovered the site.
The eggs can also be coated with vegetable oil. Do not shake two of the eggs. These eggs should be labeled by crayon as "Viable". Keep the unshaken eggs on top of or away from any oiled eggs. The shaken eggs can be safely pierced and discarded one week after the female leaves the nest with her new ducklings, or 45 days after incubation began.
An incubated egg should never be shaken; it has begun development and rather than rendering the egg infertile it could result in a deformed duckling.
This information refers to domestic ducks in the USA only. It is a violation of US federal law to disturb the eggs, nests, or raise ducklings of all wild ducks without first obtaining the necessary permits.
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