Salmonellosis / Salmonella
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Symptoms: Sick birds may appear thin, fluffed up, and may have swollen eyelids. They are often lethargic and easy to handle.
Some infected birds may show no outward symptoms but are carriers of the disease and can spread the infection to other birds.
Route of Infection: The risk of transmission is greatest where large numbers of birds gather at communal roosts or feeding sites, and poor hygiene at feeding stations can fuel a local outbreak. While most infected birds die, some do not show any symptoms and can act as carriers for quite some time. Salmonellosis is transmitted by fecal contamination of food and water by sick birds, though it can also be transmitted by bird-to-bird contact. Salmonella is a common cause of mortality in feeder birds, but the symptoms are not always obvious.
What you can do: Outbreaks are best prevented by keeping all feeding areas and water containers clean and free from droppings. Some types of salmonella are also responsible for food poisoning in man. Therefore, it is very important to exercise good personal hygiene when handling sick or dead birds, and when cleaning the feeders and water containers.
Salmonella Infection In your Pet Bird:
If you think your pet may have been exposed to the infection, see your vet. By testing a sample of the bird's droppings, he can identify the bacteria. Your vet may prescribe any of the below or different antibiotics and/or anti-diarrheals.
Provided sanitary conditions, good nutrition and a stress-free environment is provided, birds are likely to recover completely. Deaths are uncommon except in those who are very young, elderly or have weakened immune systems.
Treatment of salmonella infections are more successful if the precise species is first determined. Once the particular species of salmonella has been identified, the appropriate antibiotic can be administered. The frequently found Salmonella strains are sensitive to many commonly available antibiotics, but strains from free ranging birds have varying degrees of resistance.
Kanamycin: Dosage: .01 mgl to one gram of body weight intramuscularly twice daily.
Gentamycin: Dosage: .01 mg to one gram of body weight intramuscularly once daily or 25 mg. to 120 ml of drinking water orally.
Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Suspension: Dosage .002 ml to one gram of body weight orally twice daily.
Sodium Sulfachiorpridazine Powder: Dosage ¼ tsp to 120 ml drinking water
Pepto Bismol: Coats the intestinal tract. Helps to form a firmer stool. Dosage 2-3 drops in the mouth, 3 times daily.
Kaopectate: Daolin and pectin coat the intestinal tract and form a firmer stool. Dosage 3 drops in the mouth 3 times daily.
*Please check with the manufacturer of the specific antibiotic for additional information before treatment is started. Allays consult with your local avian veterinarian for additional information before treating individuals.
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